Colombia
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currency: Peso (COP)
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Colombia profile
only South American country with coastlines on both the North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
Colombia history
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others are Ecuador and Venezuela). A nearly five-decade long conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups, principally the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) heavily funded by the drug trade, escalated during the 1990s. More than 31,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia as a formal organization had ceased to function. In the wake of the paramilitary demobilization, emerging criminal groups arose, whose members include some former paramilitaries. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, but continue attacks against civilians. Large areas of the countryside are under guerrilla influence or are contested by security forces. In October 2012, the Colombian Government started formal peace negotiations with the FARC aimed at reaching a definitive bilateral ceasefire and incorporating demobilized FARC members into mainstream society and politics. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its administrative departments. Despite decades of internal conflict and drug related security challenges, Colombia maintains relatively strong democratic institutions characterized by peaceful, transparent elections and the protection of civil liberties.
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Conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
Conventional short form: Colombia
Local long form: Republica de Colombia
Local short form: Colombia
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Colombia's capital city is Bogota
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Colombia Constitution:

5 July 1991;
amended many times
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Colombia population growth rate: 1.128%
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Colombia highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
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Colombia lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
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About 2% of Colombia's land is arable.
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Magdalena River is the Longest River in Colombia
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Colombia birth rate is 17 births/1,000 population
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Colombia infant mortality rate is 16 deaths/1,000 live births
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Colombia fertility rate is 2.1 children born/woman
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Colombia climate:

tropical along coast and eastern plains;
cooler in highlands
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Top 10 cities of Colombia with populations (2012 est.) are:
1. Bogotá: 7,571,345
2. Medellín: 3,729,970
3. Cali: 3,225,580
4. Barranquilla: 2,185,359
5. Cartagena de Indias: 1,492,545
6. Cúcuta: 1,358,676
7. Bucaramanga: 1,276,329
8. Pereira: 616,512
9. Ibagué: 600,000
10. Soledad: 561,851
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Colombia ethnic groups:

mestizo - 58%
white - 20%
mulatto - 14%
black - 4%
mixed black-Amerindian - 3%
Amerindian - 1%
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Colombia Exports:

petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel
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Colombia Imports:

industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
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bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

Administrative Divisions:
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento)

Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Archipielago de San Andres, Providencia y Santa Catalina (colloquially San Andres y Providencia), Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada

and 1 capital district (distrito capital):

Bogota
Political parties and leaders:
Alternative Democratic Pole (PDA) - Clara LOPEZ

Conservative Party (PC) - Efrain CEPEDA Sarabia

Green Party - Jorge LONDONO Ulloa; Enrique PENALOSA

Liberal Party (PL) - Simon GAVIRIA Munoz

National Integration Party (PIN) - Angel ALIRIO Moreno

Radical Change (CR) - Antonio GUERRA de la Espriella

Social National Unity Party (U Party) - Juan Francisco LOZANO Ramirez